The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act is regulation, by federal law, of environmental effects from coal mining. It acts as protection from environmental consequences from surface coal mining production that supply’s the nation’s need for essential energy sourcing. Under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, contractors and operators must present a detailed plan for reclaiming a land after mining has been completed. The mine reclamation plan must include the pre-mining condition, as well as the previous use, of the land and give an estimated time as to how long it will take to mine the land and later in the process, complete mind restoration. Operators must also post a performance bond that ensure that monies will be available to complete the mine reclamation project.
Underground mining and open cast mining are two of the common types of mining. Reclamation for underground mines typically require less above ground activity—if any. The components for underground mines include ventilation shafts to clear toxic fumes from drilling; access shafts to lower workers and work equipment; ore transport tunnels; recovery shafts to carry excavated ore to the surface; and communication systems to send information back and forth between the surface and the depths. Open cast mining is a technique done above surface, extracting rocks and minerals from the earth by removal from borrows.
Working to restore mine restoration allots for agricultural, social and economic development. The land becomes self-sustaining in the long run—making it cost effective for the United States. Lastly, mine restoration benefits the land reclamation process because it acts as a reversal to environmental damages and destruction such as soil damage and waste. Replacing chemical induced soil with vegetation allows for a more balanced and sustainable habitat.